(1934 – ★) – (Nagaland)
Thuingaleng Muivah was born on March 3, 1934 in Somdal (Shongran), Manipur, India, is a Naga separatist politician and the General Secretary of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland. He joined the Naga National Council (NNC), an armed group campaigning for the secession of Nagaland from India, and later became the General Secretary of the NNC. However, when a group of NNC leaders signed the Shillong Accord of 1975 with the Government of India, Muivah and some others denounced them as traitors.
In 1980, a faction led by Isak Chishi Swu, S. S. Khaplang, and Muivah broke away from the NNC to form the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN). The NSCN was formed due to discontentment with the Shillong Accord and continued secessionist activities abandoned by the NNC. However, the group later split into NSCN (I-M) led by Swu and Muivah, and NSCN led by Khaplang due to major disagreements.
Under the leadership of Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu, NSCN signed a ceasefire agreement with the Government of India in August 1997 after decades of engaging in hostile fighting with Indian security forces. The major breakthrough of the peace talk happened on August 3, 2015, with the signing of a peace accord between the Muivah-led NSCN (I-M) and the Narendra Modi-led Indian Government.