Chennai, India +91


(1876 – 1947) – (Uttar Pradesh)

Bhai Parmanand (Aged 71) a prominent leader of the Hindu Mahasabha and Indian nationalist, was born on November 4, 1876, in Jhelum, Pakistan. He belonged to a prominent family of Mohyal Brahmins in Punjab. His father, Tara Chand Mohyal, was an active religious missionary with the Arya Samaj movement from Kariala, Jhelum District. In 1909, while reading Lala Lajpat Rai’s letters, Parmanand jotted an idea that ‘the territory beyond Sindh could be united with the North-West Frontier Province into a great Musulman Kingdom. The Hindus of the region should come away, while at the same time the Musulmans in the rest of the country should go and settle in this territory.’

In October 1905, Parmanand visited South Africa and stayed with Mahatma Gandhi as a Vedic missionary. He also visited Guyana in 1910, which was the center of the Arya Samaj movement in the Caribbean, and his lectures increased their following there. In 1911, he persuaded Lala Hardayal to go to the United States to found a center for the propagation of the ancient culture of the Aryan people. Hardayal left for America and eventually became an activist in the anarchist movement after spending some time in Hawaii.

Parmanand toured several British colonies in South America before re-joining Hardayal in San Francisco. He was a founder member of the Ghadar Party and accompanied Hardayal on a speaking tour to Portland in 1914. He also wrote a book for the Ghadar Party called Tarikh-I-Hind. Parmanand returned to India as part of the Ghadar Conspiracy claiming he was accompanied by 5,000 Ghadarites. He was part of the leadership of the revolt and was sent to promote the revolt in Peshawar. However, he was arrested in connection with the First Lahore Conspiracy Case and was initially sentenced to death in 1915. The sentence was later commuted to transportation for life, and he was imprisoned in the Andaman Islands until 1920 and subjected to hard labor.

In protest against the harsh treatment of political prisoners, Bhai Parmanand went on a hunger strike for two months. The King-Emperor, George V, released him in 1920 as the result of a general amnesty order. Parmanand passed away on December 8, 1947.